By Peter Zemek, PhD; Joe Van Gompel, PhD; and Steven Plowman, MIDAC Corporation
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is an accepted and well-known technique by the EPA to measure hydrogen chloride (HCl). Over the past 10 years, HCl by FTIR has been utilized successfully at many cement kilns and other incineration technologies using EPA Method 321 or 301.
This report describes how density and sound velocity are used to determine the concentration of sulfuric acid and oleum in various industrial processes. The report covers an overview of sulfuric acid production, typical installations, theory of measurement, along with a summary of benefits of measuring on-line.
In developing a comprehensive and effective cleaning program, manufacturing plants should understand the importance of choosing the correct vacuum for their application. This machinery represents a critical component in helping to minimize or avoid certain risks. A superior vacuum not only maximizes production efficiencies by enhancing the performance and lifespan of critical manufacturing equipment and safeguarding product quality; it also protects the safety and health of employees.
Selecting the right technology for a flow measurement application can be a daunting task. In the case that several technologies will work for a particular application, minimizing energy costs can help narrow the selection. This article discusses ways to assess the energy costs associated with a particular flow meter technology to inform your decision.